Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has long been used as both a culinary seasoning and medicinal herb. However, excessive consumption and application of fresh garlic in foods and medicines are limited due to its characteristic odor of the breath and skin, spicy flavor, occasional allergic reactions, toxicity and tendency to cause an upset stomach (1). black garlic benefits are anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, protect heart and liver.
How to make a black garlic
Black garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a kind of deep-processed food made of raw garlic under high temperatures (70-80°C) and humidity for 1-3 months without additives, causing the garlic to turn black because of the browning compounds produced. Through this ripening process, bioactive compounds are also newly formed or altered in black garlic-like total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity increase during the black garlic process. Black garlic has sweet-sour taste with a balsamic touch that reminds us of raisins, contain water-soluble compounds, thus it lacks the toxicity and has no peculiar garlic smell and taste of raw garlic (2).
Health Benefits of Black garlic
Black garlic health benefits are revealed through various pharmacological functions, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-allergic, hypolipidemic, cardiac and hepatoprotective. Let’s take to look at some of these properties.
1. Help to lose weight
Intake of aged black garlic help to reduce caloric/food intake, decrease fat absorption by the breakdown of fats and release it in the blood thus prevent gain weight (3,4).
2. Black garlic helps to prevent inflammation
The person who is suffering from contact dermatitis can consume or apply aged black garlic (high content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids) which suppress inflammation due to their antiseptic and anti-allergic properties thus treat contact dermatitis (5).
3. Improve Cognitive function
Black garlic supplementation improves both short-term and long-term memories in elderly people by minimizing the inflammation in the brain thus helping to prevent cognitive conditions like dementia, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease (6, 7).
4. Black garlic is best for heart function in patients with coronary heart disease
Intake of black garlic improves blood circulation in the treatment of coronary heart disease patients. Black garlic combined with conventional treatment improves the heart function, postischemic cardiac recovery, and reduced heart failure thus improve the quality of life and physical function of the patient (8, 9).
5. Healthy liver
Black garlic has the potential to block various damage caused by different chemical and alcohol effects on cell death, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, and inflammation thus prevent liver injury (10, 11).
6. Keep gastrointestinal healthy
Intake of black garlic stimulates contraction and relaxations of gastrointestinal muscles, enhances its gastrointestinal tract emptying, and promotes defecation thus keep stomach healthy (12).
7. Lower cholesterol level
Consumption of garlic improves the serum lipid profile parameters by decreasing the total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) with a notable increase in plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level and remove through fecal excretion thus ameliorate dyslipidemia (13).
8. Treat kidney injury
Black garlic decrease urea nitrogen and creatinine in serum levels of blood as well as reactive oxygen species, which causes oxidative stress and protein oxidation. Therefore, black garlic protects kidney damage by reducing tubular damage, including vacuolation and necrosis (14).
9. Black garlic is effective against gastric cancer
Black garlic shows a wonderful effect against gastric cancer cell growth (colon cancer) by inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis (15).
10. Anti-allergic properties of Black garlic
It is very effective to suppress the allergic response thus helping to prevent the development of allergic diseases such as anaphylaxis, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and inflammatory arthritis (16).
White garlic Vs. Black garlic
1. Improve taste and nutritional value
Black garlic contains a high amount of flavonoids, pyruvate, total phenol, total mineral, free sugar, organic acids, β‐carboline, alkaloids and protein contents with lowest moisture content than raw garlic (17). Moreover, black garlic has a sweet and sour taste jelly-like texture and no strong odor; with dark brown color in compare to fresh garlic thus black garlic retains the antioxidant capacity and abundant nutrients (18, 19).
Comparison of the nutritional value of black garlic and white garlic in amounts per 100 g.
|Nutritional composition||Black garlic||White garlic|
2. Black garlic is best for diabetic people
Black garlic shows stronger antioxidant activity than raw garlic by removing harmful radicals from the body increasing plasma insulin level or alleviating insulin resistance due to the high content of S-allylcysteine and polyphenols thus useful in preventing diabetic complications (20). Furthermore, Lactobacillus bulgaricus fermentation with black garlic improves antioxidant capacity by controlling the weight gain of gestational diabetes mellitus patients, avoiding low birth weight babies and macrosomia, and improving birth quality of newborns (21).
3. High antimicrobial properties of black garlic than white garlic
Black garlic exerts the highest antioxidant and antimicrobial (especially against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus followed by Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) activities than raw garlic (22).
4. Black garlic lower anti-inflammatory activity
Black garlic possesses less anti-inflammatory activity compared with raw garlic which is due to the presence of sugars such as galactose, glucose, fructose, and sucrose (23).
5. High antioxidant activity than white garlic
Black garlic has 5 times higher free radical scavenging ability than fresh garlic because it contains organosulfur compounds are produced during the aging process of garlic (24).
6. Boost immunity higher than white garlic
Black garlic has a high ability to stimulate or boost immune system than raw garlic because it contains a high amount of phenolic compound which show stronger antioxidant and anticancer activities in compare to raw garlic (25).