Dengue : Symptoms and Precautions

Dengue

Dengue is one of the biggest mosquito spread disease all over the world. The mosquito acts as an vector and transmits the virus from one individual to another. This fever is endemic to 128 tropical and subtropical countries.

What is Dengue fever?

Dengue fever is a viral fever spread by female Aedes aegypti mosquito. There are total 4 virus serotype namely DENVs 1-4 and each serotype results in pathological conditions varies from mild fever to severe hemorrhagic dengue fever (1).

How many types of Dengue fever are there?

According to WHO report 1997, depending upon the virus serotype there are total two types of fever namely Dengue fever (DF) and Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). DHF is further subcategorized into 4 subtype depending upon the severity grade defined as Dengue shock syndrome (2).

How dengue spread?

Dengue is spread by the bite of female mosquito Aedes aegypti. A mosquito when bites an infected person, the virus in the blood of the person goes in the midgut of mosquito and thrives for around 8 -12 days. After this incubation period, the virus gets into the blood of other healthy individuals with the subsequent feeding of the mosquito.

Why mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main vector for dengue virus?

Aedes aegypti bites frequently before complete its oogenesis and is also highly survives close proximity to humans (3).

Symptoms

1.Simple dengue fever

  1. High fever
  2. Pain in joints and muscles
  3. A headache
  4. Pain behind eyes and pain in the movement of eyeballs
  5. Pain in back
  6. Loss of appetite and taste
  7. Abdominal pain
  8. Skin rashes pinkish in color which become darker subsequently.

2. DHF symptoms

  1. All the above mention simple dengue fever symptoms.
  2. Bleeding from gums, nose, vomit, blood in stool, skin bleeding with dark blue patches

3. DSS (Dengue shock syndrome)

  1. All the symptoms from dengue fever plus DHF symptoms
  2. Shock like loosing consciousness
  3. Restlessness
  4. Clod sensation to skin besides of high fever
  5. Low blood pressure, uneven pulse rate.

Precautions against spreading the dengue fever

  1. Do not let any stagnant water in your vicinity. Clean the water tank, or other water storage container on regular basis in order to stop the breeding of the mosquitos.
  2. Use mosquito net,  mosquito repellent, cream, coil, mat or liquid to kill or drive away the mosquitos.
  3. Use wired mesh on the windows and doors in order to prevent the entry of mosquitos into the house.
  4. Keeps the vicinity clean and do not litter garbage or clean the wild herbs in order to prevent thriving of mosquitos.
  5. Wear full loose clothes to cover the whole body in order to prevent from mosquito biting.
  6. Spray is also one of the effective way to prevent from mosquitoes.

References

  1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6803098
  2. WHO. Dengue haemorrhagic fever: diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control, 2nd ed. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1997.
  3. https://www.who.int/tdr/publications/documents/dengue-diagnosis.pdf

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