Coriander health benefits and side effects

Introduction

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a small oldest herb that has been used for over 3,000 years, belongs to the Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) family. Coriander leaves and stems have a great value for its culinary and medicinal uses. The herbs and seeds of coriander are being excessively used in the traditional culinary owing to its pleasant color and flavor. Coriander health benefits are good for kidney, skin and boost brain health.

Uses of Coriander

Coriander young leaves are useful to make sauces, fish and meat products, pickles, beverages, and chutneys. The green leaves are consumed as fresh herbs, in salads, and as garnishes due to its attractive green color and aroma.  Apart from the appealing aroma, seeds and leaves are also known for their therapeutic potential in Ayurvedic medicine since ages.

Common name

Dhanya, Arab parsley, Chinese parsley, Cilantro, Geshniz (in Iran)

Distribution

Coriander is native to Italy and is widely cultivated in Central and Eastern Europe, Mediterranean regions (Morocco, Malta, Egypt), and Asia (China, Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh) (1).

Nutritional value of coriander

According to the USDA National Nutrient database, coriander fresh leaves contain moisture, protein, carbohydrates, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin B2, niacin, vitamin C,  vitamin A and other components as follows  (2).

Compound                                                                                     Amounts per 100 g.
Water 92.21 g
Energy 23 Kcal
Protein 2.13 g
Total lipid (fat) 0.52 g
Carbohydrate, by difference 3.67 g
Fiber, total dietary 2.8 g
Sugar 0.87 g
Calcium 67 mg
Iron, Fe 1.77 mg
Magnesium 26 mg
Phosphorus 48 mg
Potassium 521 mg
Sodium 46 mg
Zinc 0.5 mg
Copper 0.22 mg
Manganese 0.42 mg
Selenium 0.9 µg
Vitamin C 27 mg
Thiamin 0.07 mg
Riboflavin 0.16 mg
Niacin 1.11 mg
Pantothenic acid 0.57mg
Vitamin B-6 0.15 mg
Folate, DFE 62 µg
Vitamin A, RAE 337 µg
Vitamin A 6748 IU
Vitamin E 2.5 mg
Vitamin K 310 µg
Fatty acids, total saturated 0.014 g
Fatty acids, total monounsaturated 0.27 g
Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated 0.04 g

Health benefits of coriander

Different parts of the coriander plant have been reported for multiple health benefits

1. Coriander helps in keeping skin healthy

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes photodamage such as increase wrinkles, roughness, a sallow appearance, mottled hyperpigmentation, and telangiectasias to the skin. Coriander leaf extract contains linolenic acid which increases collagen synthesis by scavenging UVB-induced harmful radicals, prevents the degradation of collagen and elastin fiber thus protect skin against these damages (3).

2. Antioxidant and Anticancer properties of coriander

Coriander root contains a high amount of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, carotenoids, polyphenol and chlorophyll contents which is well-known for its antioxidant and anticancer properties (4).

Thus daily intake of coriander root or coriander juice prevents DNA damage, breast cancer cell migration (inhibition of metastasis). It prevents oxidative deterioration of food and used in combination with conventional drugs to enhance the treatment of diseases such as prostate cancer (5).

3. Increase appetite due to linalool

Linalool found in coriander reduces the plasma glycerol level and increases food intake and body weight. Therefore coriander had positive effects on appetite (6).

4. Keep brain healthy

Daily intake of coriander prevents dark neuron and apoptotic cell production thus protect the brain from oxidative stress and neuronal damage due to seizure. Therefore, coriander leaf may use as a natural anticonvulsant drug for the treatment of epileptic seizures (7).

5. Antimicrobial properties of Coriander oil

The coriander oil is effective against Escherichia coliKlebsiella pneumoniaeSalmonella typhimurium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa  Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus strains (8). Moreover, coriander leaves essential oil also helps to treat oral candidiasis (oral cavity infection) which is caused by Candida species (9).

6. Keep kidney healthy

Intake of coriander leaf extract decreases the concentration of heavy metals such as iron, arsenic, and cadmium in the kidney thus protect the kidney from heavy metals induced oxidative stress (10).

7. Treat inflammatory bowel disorders

Intake of coriander extract and its essential oil is effective to reduce inflammation in the colon thus helpful for the treatment of colitis and management of inflammatory bowel disorders in humans (11).

8. Good in diabetes and cholesterol level

Intake of coriander leaves in combination with fenugreek seed show beneficial effect on the reduction in blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), VLDL levels, urea, creatinine, and increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and body weight (12).

9. Sedative and Analgesic properties

Coriander contains linalool as well as polyphenols including rutin, caffeic acid, and gallic acid provides relief from pain and increases the sleeping time without major neurotoxic effect (13, 14).

10. Treat liver or kidney injury

Coriander leaves show a wonderful effect on the treatment of liver or kidney injury caused by different chemicals (15).

Side effect of coriander

1. Risk of coriander-flavored Beer anaphylaxis

Intakes of coriander-flavored beer cause anaphylaxis in young women which may be due to the presence of Bet v 1- and profilin-related allergens (16). These molecules may be responsible for Type I allergy thus precaution should be needed before consumption (17).

References

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23281145
  2. https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/169997/nutrients
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4152784/
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4028854/
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4984701/
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4075695/
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5355817/
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21862758
  9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4047076/
  10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30783906
  11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4877963/
  12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/31831953/?i=11&from=Coriandrum%20sativum
  13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4392559/
  14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21988208/
  15. http://www.apjtm.org/article.asp?issn=1995-7645;year=2018;volume=11;issue=3;spage=209;epage=213;aulast=Iqbal
  16. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/546248
  17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9420134

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