King trumpet mushroom: benefits and side effects

One minute summary of King trumpet mushroom benefits

This mushroom has many common names like King trumpet mushroom, French horn mushroom, King brown mushroom. This mushroom is rich in vitamins and dietary fibers, amino acids, and low in calories.

Health benefits of King trumpet mushroom

  1. Improve gut health
  2. Immunity booster
  3. Lowers cholesterol
  4. Reduce toxic aflatoxin, Manage diabetes

Introduction

Name: King oyster mushroom and King trumpet mushroom

Scientific name: Pleurotus eryngii of family Pleurotaceae

Common name: Almond oyster mushroom, Umbel oyster mushroom, Scallop mushroom, Boletus of the steppes, King trumpet mushroom, French horn mushroom, King brown mushroom

Cultivated in: Mediterranean Basin, Central and Southern Europe, and Central and Western Asia (1)

It is very popular and is highly appreciated for its firm texture, taste, flavor, and nutritional value due to its excellent consistency of cap and stem, culinary qualities, and longest shelf life than any other oyster mushroom which attracts consumers (2).

This fungus is a weak parasite on the roots and stems of umbellifers (family Apiaceae, genera Eryngium, Ferula, Ferulago, Cachrys, Laserpitium, Diplotaenia, and Elaeoselinum). It is also cultivated on low-cost substrates derived from agricultural and forest wastes such as Sawdust, cottonseed hulls, corn stover, wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse, combined with various amounts of soybean meal, peanut meal, wheat bran, and wheat bran, etc (3).

Nutritional value of King trumpet mushroom

King oyster mushrooms are highly nutritious and offer a good source of protein than most vegetables, carbohydrates, fiber, amino acids, low calories, vitamins, and minerals (4).

Compound                                         Amounts per 100 g.
Energy                                                48 kcal
Protein3.53 g
Total lipid (  Fat)s0 g
Carbohydrates1.18 g
Dietary Fiber1.2 g
Sugar1.18 g
Minerals
Calcium0 mg
Iron0 mg
Sodium247 mg
Vitamins
Vitamin C4.2 mg

Health benefits of King trumpet mushroom

King oyster mushroom exhibits various biological functions, including anti-hypertensive, antioxidant, anti-hypercholesterolemic, anti-hyperglycemic, immunomodulating, antitumor, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and anti-osteoporotic effects as follows

1. Nutrient-rich King trumpet mushroom

This mushroom is rich in carbohydrates, dietary fibers, chitin, and polysaccharides. It also contains amino acids such as aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and arginine. King oyster mushroom is also abundant in vitamins (C, A, B2, B1, D, and niacin) and minerals (especially K, Mg, Na, and Ca) with very low amounts of lipids, and high moisture (5). It also contains a high amount of selenium and ergothioneine which make it novel functional food (6).

2. β glucans of King trumpet mushroom helps in managing diabetes

King oyster mushrooms contain β glucans which act as a hypoglycemic agent that improves insulin resistance and subsequent decrease in blood glucose levels.

Moreover, consumption of king oyster mushroom increase glycogen and insulin concentrations as well as recovering injured β-cells and reduce free radical damage. Therefore, king oyster mushroom (100 and 200 mg/kg) increases the body weight and may be useful for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes (7).

3. King trumpet mushroom stalk improve meat quality in broilers

Stalk residue (byproduct) of King oyster mushroom contains activate antioxidative enzymes in serum, liver, spleen, and fillet tissues. Thus, king oyster mushrooms may potentially be useful as an antioxidant to decrease lipid peroxidation and improve meat quality in broilers (8).

4. Improves gut health

Intake of King trumpet mushroom reduces colonic inflammation, fecal microbiota alteration by increasing the good bacteria. It also increases the formation of short-chain fatty acids and the antioxidant capacity of colonic contents. Moreover, regulate the immune response of the host. Thus king oyster mushroom is very beneficial against inflammatory bowel disease (9).

5. The polysaccharide of the King trumpet mushroom inhibits tumor growth

Polysaccharides present in King oyster mushrooms may activate the cellular and humoral immunity significantly thus inhibiting the tumor growth of various cells such as Renca renal cancer, human hepatoblastoma (10,11). Furthermore, triterpenes found in king oyster mushrooms showed significant inhibitory activity against breast cancer (12).

6. Antimicrobial properties of King oyster mushroom

King trumpet mushrooms contain broad-spectrum antibiotic compounds that are beneficial for protection against various bacteria such as Bacillus megaterium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Trichophyton spp., and Epidermophyton spp (13).

7. Good for bone health treat osteoporosis

Ergostadienol, dihydroxyergostenone, and other active substances present in King trumpet mushroom have the potential to enhance bone metabolism by reducing the loss of trabecular bone mineral density and protect against the bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency in a postmenopausal woman which further prevents osteoporosis (14).

8. Ergothioneine the main Antioxidant in King oyster mushrooms

King oyster mushrooms have ergothioneine and another phenolic compound which is an effective antioxidant and scavenging ability. Therefore, King trumpet mushroom products with high amounts of ergothioneine act as a protective agent and beneficially as a functional food (15).

9. Lowers cholesterol level

Lovastatin and mevinolin obtained from King trumpet mushroom act as a hypocholesterolemic agent that suppresses endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis. It also reduces plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, total lipid, phospholipids, and LDL/HDL ratio (16)

Moreover, intake of King trumpet mushroom inhibits the fat absorption from the small intestine that further reduces pancreatic lipase (enzyme) activity, and significantly reduces body weight in hypercholesterolemic patients. Thus after consumption of this mushroom tri oleoyl glycerol absorption is also decrease and prevents postprandial hyperlipidemia (17).

10. Antiviral properties of King oyster mushrooms due to protease

The presence of pleureryn (protease) in King trumpet mushroom protects against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase which later progresses to AIDS (18). Furthermore, the King trumpet mushroom is very beneficial to inhibit the reproduction of the influenza virus (19).

11. The immune-enhancing β-glucan compound in King trumpet mushroom

β-glucan found in king oyster mushroom increases natural killer cell activity and acts as an immune enhancer that enables patients to rebuild their own immune system by activating humoral and cellular immunity (20).

12. Anti-allergic properties

The mast cell is responsible for the early allergic response after exposure to an appropriate antigen which results in inflammatory disorders. Consumption of King oyster mushrooms prevents or treats mast cell-dependent allergic diseases (21).

13. Reduce toxic aflatoxin

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most harmful mycotoxin produced by contaminated staple cereals such as maize. Therefore, the cultivation of King trumpet mushroom degraded (bioconvert) up to 86% of the AFB1 in 28 days into high nutritional value material intended for feed production (22).

Side effects of King oyster mushroom

King trumpet mushroom has no side effect because practically no clinical study has been reported. Therefore it is safe, and no one really knows its long-term effects on a person’s health.


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