White Button Mushroom Benefits and Side effects

White button mushroom benefits


White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus; family- Agaricaceae) has been a part of the human diet for over 200 years and is cultivated in at least 70 countries around the world. White button mushroom consumption has increased due to their nutritional value, and delicious taste, and ranked fourth of the most cultivated mushrooms (1)

Three varieties (white, brown, and portobello) of Agaricus bisporus are available in the market and are mainly grown in China, North America, Europe, and Australia. 

This mushroom has possible antioxidant, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antidiabetic, and anticancer properties. Agaricus bisporus original wild form is a brownish cap and dark brown gills but the white form is more familiar. Various food applications such as boiled pizzas and casseroles, stuffed mushrooms, raw salads, and various forms in a variety of dishes use white button mushrooms.

Nutritional value of White button mushroom

White button mushroom offers a good source of protein, carbohydrates, fiber, amino acids, low calories, vitamins, and minerals, particularly potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, copper, zinc, and selenium (2).

Compound                                                                              Amounts per 100 g.
Water 92.45 g
Energy                                                                               22 kcal
Protein 3.09 g
Total lipid (Fat)s 0.34 g
Ash 0.85 g
Carbohydrates 3.26 g
Dietary Fiber 1.0 g
Sugar 1.98 g
Calcium 3 mg
Iron 0.50 mg
Magnesium 9 mg
Phosphorous 86 mg
Potassium 318 mg
Sodium 5 mg
Zinc 0.52 mg
Copper 0.32 mg
Manganese 0.04 mg
Selenium 9.3  µg
Folates 17 µg
Niacin 3.60 mg
Riboflavin 0.40 mg
Pantothenic acid 1.49 mg
Thiamin 0.08 mg
Vitamin B-6 0.10 mg
Vitamin B-12 0.04 µg
Vitamin D 7 IU
Vitamin E 0.01 mg
Vitamin C 2.1 mg


Benefits of White button mushroom


Studies suggested that amino acids present in mushroom proteins are similar to animal proteins which makes them a good alternative to meat.

1. Eat white button mushrooms for healthy liver

β-glucans and proteins present in white button mushrooms may prevent liver steatosis which is the early stage of fatty liver disease (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis). Thus white button mushroom consumption lowers liver weight and hepatic injury and protects the liver (3).

2. Rich in selenium

White button mushrooms are an excellent source of selenium. Thus beneficial effects on disease treatment and prevention associated with low selenium concentrations, such as aging, and neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, and immunological diseases (4).

3. May lowers the cholesterol level

White button mushrooms contain dietary fibers and antioxidants, vitamins C, D, and B12, folates, and polyphenols. These compounds help in decreasing blood cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and increase plasma high-density lipoprotein. Therefore, the consumption of mushrooms is beneficial in reducing cholesterol levels in hypocholesterolemic patients (5).

4. May inhibit cell proliferation

Ergothioneine, lectin, and beta-glucan found in white button mushrooms act as an antioxidant for breast cancer (6). Furthermore, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) present in mushrooms inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis thus preventing prostate cancer in men (7).

5. Manage Diabetes

White button mushrooms contain polysaccharides which are natural antidiabetic and may improve impaired glucose tolerance and reduce hyperglycemia and α-amylase activity. Thus mushroom polysaccharides may be helpful for the treatment of multiple human disease syndromes (8).

6. White button mushroom for healthy gut health

White button mushroom increases the good gut microflora and reduce bad bacteria (e.g., Clostridia) in the gastrointestinal tract (9).  Moreover, it protects against gastrointestinal injury arising from heat stress because it contains selenium which is a bioactive compound and beneficial against intestinal permeability, epithelial injury, and barrier disruption induced by oxidative stress (10).

Studies suggested that mushrooms can be more beneficial than meat because of their prebiotic, and laxative effects, increased stool weight, and improved gut health (11).

7. Anti-aging properties of white button mushrooms

White button mushroom polysaccharides (AlAPS-1, 2 & 3) are an excellent antioxidant that remits and improves aging properties by neutralizing free radicals and preventing age-related diseases (12).

8. White button mushrooms help in reducing weight

Oligopeptides and fibers found in white button mushrooms have a high nutritious value which prevents excessive body weight gain, decreased belly circumference, and increased satiety without losing palatability (13)

9. Boost brain health

White button mushrooms are a good source of antioxidants such as ergosterol. Which can be converted to Vitamin D2 by treatment with UV light and is helpful in the development of the central nervous system. Thus acts as a natural memory enhancer for the treatment of various cognitive disorders, dementia, Alzheimer’s, and other neurodegenerative diseases (14).

10. Healthy strong bones

The presence of ergosterol (ergocalciferol) in mushrooms is a natural source of vitamin D2 with exposure to UV light. Vitamin D is essential for calcium absorption and bone health, and a deficiency can lead to softening of the bones in children and adults as well as osteoporosis in adults, Thus intake of mushrooms improves bone mineralization and prevents osteoporosis (15).

11. Eating white button mushrooms helps in the improvement of sperm quality

Selenium present in White button mushrooms helps in the improvement of sperm production sperm quality and fertility in person (16).

12. Anti-inflammatory properties of white button mushrooms

Polysaccharides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, and many bioactive compounds present in the white button mushroom act as potent anti-inflammatory agents (17).

13. Possible antimicrobial properties of white button mushrooms

White button mushrooms are a rich source of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, and cardiac glycosides that are responsible for protecting against different bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus vulgaris (18).

Side effects of white button mushrooms

1. Agaritine in mushroom

A research study suggested that consumption of white button mushrooms poses no toxicological risk to humans. But there is one drawback of Agaricus bisporus species that is it contains 200–500 mg agaritine/kg fresh weight. This compound is carcinogenic.

However, when cooked, refrigerated, as well as dried these compounds were reduced significantly. Thus, the exposure to agaritine was substantially less when consuming processed Agaricus mushrooms as compared with consuming raw mushrooms (19).

2. Short shelf life

The shelf life of mushrooms is 3 to 4 days at room temperature (20–25 °C). Thus there is a risk of contamination and loss of phenolic compounds and their ability to reduce free radicals. 

However, chemical coating treatments such as CaCl2 and chitosan solution in citric acid increase shelf life without significant deterioration in their quality but precaution should be needed before consumption check label (20).

White button mushroom recipe – garlic mushroom stir fry 


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