White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus; family- Agaricaceae) is a part of the human diet for over 200 years and is cultivated in at least 70 countries around the world. White button mushroom consumption has increased due to their nutritional value, delicious taste, and ranked fourth of most cultivated mushrooms (1).
Three varieties (white, brown, and portobello) of Agaricus bisporus are available in the market and mainly grown in China, North America, Europe, and Australia.
This mushroom is well known for its high nutritional and therapeutic value. Hence possess antioxidant, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antidiabetic, and anticancer properties. Agaricus bisporus original wild form is brownish cap and dark brown gills but the white form is more familiar. Various food applications such as boiled on pizzas and casseroles, stuffed mushrooms, raw on salads, and in various forms in a variety of dishes uses white button mushroom.
Nutritional value of White button mushroom
White button mushroom offers a good source of protein, carbohydrate, fiber, amino acids, low calories, vitamins, and minerals particularly potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, copper, zinc, and selenium (2).
|Compound||Amounts per 100 g.|
|Total lipid (Fat)s||0.34 g|
|Dietary Fiber||1.0 g|
|Pantothenic acid||1.49 mg|
|Vitamin B-6||0.10 mg|
|Vitamin B-12||0.04 µg|
|Vitamin D||7 IU|
|Vitamin E||0.01 mg|
|Vitamin C||2.1 mg|
Health benefits of White button mushroom
Studies suggested that amino acids present in mushroom proteins are similar to animal proteins which make them a good alternative for meat.
1. Eat white button mushroom for healthy liver
β-glucans and proteins present in white button mushrooms may prevent liver steatosis which is the early stage of fatty liver disease (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis). Thus white button mushroom consumption lowered liver weight and hepatic injury and protects the liver (3).
2. Rich in selenium
White button mushrooms are an excellent source of selenium. Thus is beneficial effects on disease treatment and prevention associated with low selenium concentrations, such as aging, and neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, and immunological diseases (4).
3. White button mushroom helps in lowering the cholesterol level
White button mushrooms contain dietary fibers and antioxidants, vitamin C, D, and B12, folates, and polyphenols. These compounds help in decreasing blood cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and increase plasma high-density lipoprotein. Therefore, the consumption of mushrooms beneficial in reducing cholesterol levels in the hypocholesterolemic patient (5).
4. Prevents cancer
Ergothioneine, lectin, and beta-glucan found in white button mushrooms act as an antioxidant for breast cancer (6). Furthermore, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) present in mushrooms inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis thus prevent prostate cancer in men (7).
5. Manage Diabetes
White button mushroom contains polysaccharides which are natural antidiabetic may improve impaired glucose tolerance and reduce hyperglycemia and α-amylase activity. Thus mushroom polysaccharides may helpful for the treatment of multiple human disease syndromes (8).
6. White button mushroom for healthy gut health
White button mushroom increases the good gut microflora and reduced bad bacteria (e.g., Clostridia) in the gastrointestinal tract (9). Moreover, it protects against gastrointestinal injury arising from heat stress because it contains selenium which is a bioactive compound and beneficial against intestinal permeability, epithelial injury, and barrier disruption induced from oxidative stress (10).
Studies suggested that mushrooms can be beneficial than meat because of their prebiotic, laxative effect, increase stool weight and improve gut health (11).
7. Anti-aging properties of white button mushrooms
White button mushroom polysaccharides (AlAPS-1, 2 & 3) is an excellent antioxidant which remits and improve the aging properties by neutralizing free radicals and prevent age-related diseases (12).
8. White button mushrooms help in reducing weight
Oligopeptide and fibers found in white button mushrooms have a high nutritious value which prevents excessive body weight gain, decreased belly circumference, and increase satiety without losing palatability (13).
9. Boost brain health
White button mushrooms are a good source of antioxidants such as ergosterol. Which can be converted to Vitamin D2 by treatment with UV light and helpful in the development of the central nervous system. Thus acts as a natural memory enhancer for the treatment of various cognitive disorders, dementia, Alzheimer’s, and other neurodegenerative diseases (14).
10. Healthy strong bones
The presence of ergosterol (ergocalciferol) in mushrooms is a natural source of vitamin D2 with exposure to UV light. Vitamin D is essential for calcium absorption and bone health, and a deficiency can lead to softening of the bones in children and adults as well as osteoporosis in adults, Thus intake of mushroom improve bone mineralization and prevent osteoporosis (15).
11. Eating white button mushroom helps in the improvement of sperm quality
Selenium present in White button mushroom helps in the improvement of sperm production and sperm quality and fertility in person (16).
12. Anti-inflammatory properties of white button mushrooms
Polysaccharides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, and many bioactive compounds present in the white button mushroom act as potent anti-inflammatory agents (17).
13. Antimicrobial properties of white button mushrooms
White button mushrooms are a rich source of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, and cardiac glycosides that are responsible for protect against different bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus vulgaris (18).
Side effects of white button mushrooms
1. Agaritine in mushroom
A research study suggested that consumption of white button mushrooms poses no toxicological risk to humans. But there is one drawback of Agaricus bisporus species that is it contains 200–500 mg agaritine/kg fresh weight. This compound is carcinogenic in nature.
However, when cooked, refrigerated, as well as dried these compounds were reduced significantly. Thus, the exposure to agaritine was substantially less when consuming processed Agaricus mushrooms as compared with consuming the raw mushrooms (19).
2. Short shelf life
The shelf life of mushrooms is 3 to 4 days at room temperature (20–25 °C). Thus there is a risk of contamination and loss of phenolic compounds and their ability to reduce free radicals.
However, chemical coating treatments such as CaCl2 and chitosan solution in citric acid increase shelf life without significant deterioration in their quality but precaution should be needed before consumption check label (20).