Plums are juicy, drupe fruit that belongs to the subgenus Prunus (family Rosaceae). This fruit is mostly consumed in America, China, and Europe. Nowadays their demand is growing very fast because of their flavor and appearance (1). There are more than 2000 varieties of plums. Only a few are commercially important. The most commonly grown species are the only difference is in their flesh color like yellow, white, green, and red prunes. Plum benefits for health are keeping bone healthy, antidiabetic, and laxative in nature. Types of plums are
- European plum (Prunus domestica)
- Japanese plum (P. salicina)
- Damson plum (P. insititia)
White coating of Plum
Edible white coating of plum helps in enhancing the resistance from the external environment and the shelf-life of the fruit. Generally, plum is treated with a different coating material such as carbohydrate, protein, and lipid-based materials (2).
Nutritional value of Plums
The plum fruit is rich in vitamins, minerals, fiber, and enzymes and also has high nutritional and medicinal value (3).
|Compound||Amounts/ 100 g.|
|Total lipid ( Fat)s||0.28 g|
|Dietary Fiber||1.4 g|
|Vitamin B-6||0.029 mg|
|Vitamin A||345 IU|
|Vitamin E||0.26 mg|
|Vitamin C||9.5 mg|
|Vitamin K||6.4 µg|
1. Memory enhancer
Eating plums (75 mg/kg) helps in enhancing memory. As it contains large amounts of polyphenols and phytochemicals like Neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, crypto chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, anthocyanins, flavanols, and flavonoids (4).
2. Prevents obesity
Plum juice is rich in dietary polyphenols and also carbohydrate-free. Therefore it helps in modifying the fecal bacterial composition thus decreases the body weight (5).
High antioxidant activity of fresh and dried plums are because of anthocyanins, flavonoid, and phenolic compounds such as chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acid, rutin, and proanthocyanidin (6).
Consumption of plum decreases blood glucose and plasma triglyceride. As it contains chlorogenic acid which may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes (7).
5. Healthy Bones
Dried plum is rich in minerals like boron, copper, magnesium, and manganese which help in maintaining the calcium balance of the body (8). Thus significantly increases the bone mineral density of ulna and spine in comparison with dried apples and prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women (9).
Plims act as a natural laxative because of polyphenols, dietary fibers, and sorbitol. Hence eating plums is helpful in mild constipation (10).
7. Improve digestion
Carotenoids and polyphenols found in plums reduced gastrointestinal inflammation and stimulated digestion (11).
8. Healthy heart
Dried plums help in slowing down the development of atherosclerosis and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Compounds like pectin and fibers also lower the liver and plasma cholesterol thus having anti-inflammatory properties (12).
9. Treats influenza
Plum concentrate juice contains lectin-like molecules that may prevent and reduce infection caused by the human influenza A virus (13).
10. Prevents Hepatitis C Virus Entry
Flavonoid rutin in plum prevents hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry. It may act as an antiviral agent for the development of anti-HCV therapeutics in the management of HCV infection (14).
11. Treats anxiety disorder
Chlorogenic acids found in plum also contain anxiolytic activity. Therefore, plum is safe and significantly reduces moderate to severe General Anxiety Disorder symptoms (15).
Dietary fiber and polyphenols mainly chlorogenic and neo-chlorogenic acids in plums helps in lowering colon and breast cancer risk (16).
Plums are rich in natural antioxidants thus protects from oxidative stress and inflammatory on neurologic processes decline in cognitive performance occurred in animals and humans.
Plum contains a phenolic compound which shows antibacterial activity against the human pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Protease mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus (17).
Side effects of Plums
The person who is allergic to birch pollen should not eat a plum. As both have similar types of proteins. Therefore, it results in allergic symptoms in the mouth and throat with itching and inflammation (18).
Difference between Plum and Prune
Prunes are the dried fruits of some cultivars of plums. It contains concentrated source nutritive, laxative, and digestive compounds. Hence used for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, jaundice, and fever. Plums are healthier than prunes. As prunes are dried out by different techniques that produce detrimental effects on the quality of fruits, mainly oxidative damage, browning, loss of flavor, and extensive shrinkage, which reduce the sensory and nutritional quality of the products. Therefore consuming plums instead of prunes are good for health (19).