Golden Apple (Aegle marmelos): Benefits and side effects

Golden apple


Golden Apple is known as the wooden apple, Japanese bitter orange, stone apple, and bilwa or bael. It belongs to the Rutaceae family and Its botanical or binomial name is Aegle marmelos.

It is a famous and important medicinal plant in Ayurvedic and Siddha systems of medicine.

In Ayurveda, bael is known as tridosha hara (can be used for three types of body disturbances), like bile, wind, and phlegm.

Not only medicinally beneficial but also this tree works as a climate purifier. It absorbs harmful gases from the atmosphere and makes them inert and fresh. Also gives a greater percentage of oxygen as compared to other plants.

All parts of bael like leaves, roots, bark, seeds, and fruits are used in formulations against numerous diseases. Bael fruits are rich in vitamins, minerals, and many types of nutrients.

The unripe fruit produces heat while the ripe fruit gives a cooling effect. Unripe fruit is used for the treatment of arthritis and gout and ripe fruit is consumed during summer to keep the body cool.

Nutritionists suggest taking a minimum of one hundred fifteen grams of fruit each day for a balanced diet.

Benefits of Golden Apple 

Aegle marmelos have medicinal properties which help to prevent and treat several diseases. It worked as an antidiarrhoeal, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antiviral, radioprotective, anticancer, antifungal, Chemopreventive, antipyretic, ulcer healing, antigenotoxic, diuretic, antifertility, and anti-inflammatory (1)

Nutritional composition

Golden apple fruit is rich in nutrients, minerals, and vitamins. Major nutrients listed in the table

100gms of bael composed of the following nutrients

Proteins 1.8g
Total carbohydrates 31.8g
Total fat 0.3g
Riboflavin 1.19mg
Niacin 1.1mg
Thiamin 0.13mg
Vitamin A 55mg
Vitamin C 8 to 60 mg
Calcium 85mg
Phosphorus 50mg
Potassium 600mg


Bioactive components of Golden apple

This plant contains several types of bioactive components. These bioactive components have different biological activities and high therapeutic importance.

The fruits are composed of many bioactive compounds like carotenoids, phenolics, alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, terpenoids, etc.

They have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties and are involved in drug development, food storage, and health supplements (2).

Health Benefits of Golden Apple

1. Bael controls blood pressure.

2. It is used for removing skin and hair diseases.

3. It is used in the treatment of jaundice.

4. The leaf of the Golden Apple tree is used for the treatment of joint pain and swelling.

5. The leaves and fruits are both used to control diabetes.

6. Juice of the fruit golden Apple Bael is used for indigestion and constipation.

7. The fruit golden Apple also cures ulcer diseases and it is good for pregnant women.

8. It is used in thyroid disorders, cardiac stimulants, fractures, typhoid, coma, bleeding sores, and cramps.

Side Effects of Golden Apple

All medicines or herbs are used in certain amounts, if we consume excessive amounts they cause side effects. Hence bael is also used in limited amounts, if we consume too much it’s not good for our health.

  • A small quantity of bael juice is beneficial for diabetic patients but consuming an excessive amount it’s not good. If we take medicine for diabetes along with Bael they drop sugar levels too low.
  • We know bael is suitable for indigestion and constipation but if we take too much bael it causes constipation.
  • In thyroid disorder, if someone already takes medicine to cure thyroid imbalance.
  • Chemical constituents of bael react with medicine and cause side effects.
  • During pre and post-surgery people will avoid taking bael juice because it increases the blood sugar level.

Culinary applications of Golden Apple

Aegle marmelos fruit is used in the preparation of candy, panjiri, toffee, jam, etc It’s also used in making soap because it has detergent properties, and unripe fruit is used as household gum. 

The young leaves and shoots are used as vegetables and seasonal food in Indonesia.

These are some examples where bael fruit used as a main ingredient:-

Making jam

Mature but still unripe fruits are made into jam with the addition of citric acid.


Golden apple candy

Toffee is prepared by bael fruit pulp with sugar, glucose, skim milk powder, and hydrogenated fat.

Golden Apple Sharbat

It is prepared by ripened fruit pulp with milk and sugar.


Jelly is made from the fruit pulp added with guava to enhance the astringent flavor.


1. Golden Apple juice


  1. One bael fruit
  2. Sugar (optional)
  3. Black paper powder
  4. Salt


  1. Firstly take ripe bael fruit and break the fruit then we will see yellow colored pulp.
  2.  Pick out these pulps and put it in a bowl with water. 
  3. Mash the fruit into the water and throw out the hard part of the fruit.
  4.  After mashing properly, strain the juice.
  5. During straining add ½ cup water and stir the mixture properly.
  6. Then add sugar if sugar is required.
  7.  Add salt and black paper powder then mix well.

2. Golden Apple fruit jam


  1. One bael fruit
  2. Sugar
  3. Lemon juice
  4. Water


  1. Break the hard shell of the bael fruit.
  2. Take out the pulp and place it in a bowl along with water.
  3. Bowl keep aside for 30 minutes.
  4. After 30 min mash the pulp properly and strain the juice.
  5.  Add this juice to a non-stick pan and cook for 10 minutes on low flame.
  6. Add sugar and cook once again on low flame.
  7. When the jam starts the thick switch of the flame.
  8. Then allow the jam to cool down add the lemon juice and mix properly.

3. Golden apple smoothie


  1. Bael fruit
  2. Yogurt
  3. Sugar (optional)


  1. Pick out the pulp from the fruit and blend it properly with water.
  2. Add one spoonful of yogurt and water, and mix well.
  3. Add sugar or jaggery if not sweet enough, a smoothie is readily served it.  


1. What is Aegle marmelos used for?

Aegle marmelos are used for the treatment of various types of diseases like diabetes, blood pressure, diarrhea, thyroid imbalance, typhoid, fracture, etc.

2. What does Aegle marmelos taste like?

Aegle marmelos is slightly sweet and tangy in taste.

3. What is another name for Aegle marmelos?

Aegle marmelos another name is bael, bilwa, and wooden apple.

4. What are the characteristics of Aegle marmelos?

Aegle marmelos fruit looks like berries but it has a hard shell and inside the fruit dark orange walls with segments. Segments filled with sweet and resinous pulp.


  • Golden Apple is one of the important medicinal fruits.
  • All parts of Aegle marmelos namely leaves, roots, barks, and seeds are useful for the treatment of many diseases.
  • Golden Apple is a source of vitamins, minerals, and various types of nutrients.
  • It is medically important for the treatment of fungal infection, diarrhea, pyrexia, diabetes, inflammation, microbial infection, and anemia.
  • It contains chemical constituents which have medicinal properties like antidiabetic, anticancer, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, etc.
  • Also has bioactive components which have different biological activities. Bioactive components like carotenoids, phenolics, alkaloids, and flavonoids.
  • It is nutritionally composed of protein, carbohydrates, fat, riboflavin, niacin, thiamin, vitamin A, Vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, and potassium.


Written By: Richa Pachori